Modular Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries under Use and Abuse Load cases with LS-DYNA

by N. Karajan, S. Sible, J. Jomo - DYNAmore


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Categories: 2022, battery testing, and simulations.

Battery safety is currently one of the fastest growing research fields, as testing and modeling require multiphysics over a large span of time and length scales. While testing is expensive and tedious, there is a strong desire to build simulation models that can help in the process of safety assessment. When dealing with Li-Ion batteries as a source of energy, the greatest concern is to prevent the so-called cascading cell failure in battery modules and packs. Herein, the goal is to understand the mechanisms that trigger such an event to find possibilities to prevent it. This requires a good understanding of the events that can cause separator failure, which in turn triggers an internal short circuit, which again leads to a local heating of the battery cell. This can ultimately ignite the battery where a violent exothermic chemical reaction takes place which produces high heat and poisonous gases. The goal of this presentation is to build a modular multi-physics model in LS-DYNA that is capable of capturing the above described failure chain. Following this, there will be a thermal module to characterize heat flow, an electro-magnetic (EM) module to characterize heat production during use and abuse as well as a structural module to capture deformation of the battery and separator failure inside the battery. All these effects can be brought together to investigate how batteries can be used safely.